Healthcare System in Belgium: A Guide for Expatriates

Belgium boasts a high-quality healthcare system that is both accessible and comprehensive. For expatriates moving to or currently living in Belgium, understanding the ins and outs of this system is crucial for ensuring you and your family can access the medical services you need. This guide aims to demystify the Belgian healthcare system, providing clear insights, actionable steps, and practical tips.

Overview of the Healthcare System in Belgium

The Belgian healthcare system operates on a mandatory health insurance model, where healthcare costs are shared between the state, health insurance funds, and the patient. It is known for its excellent standards of care, wide availability of services, and relatively short waiting times for treatments.

Key Considerations for Expatriates

  1. Mandatory Health Insurance: All residents in Belgium, including expatriates, are required to register with a local health insurance fund (mutuelle/ziekenfonds) to access healthcare services. This insurance covers a significant portion of healthcare costs, with the remainder being out-of-pocket expenses for the patient.
  2. Registration Process: Upon arriving in Belgium, you should register with your local commune (municipality), after which you can join a health insurance fund. You’ll need to provide identification documents, proof of residency, and possibly proof of employment or income.
  3. Choosing a Primary Care Physician: In Belgium, your primary care physician (general practitioner or GP) plays a central role in your healthcare. They provide referrals to specialists and are your first point of contact for most health concerns.

Accessing Medical Services in Belgium

  1. Finding a GP: It’s advisable to register with a GP soon after settling in Belgium. You have the freedom to choose your GP, and it’s essential to find one who speaks your language or English to ease communication.
  2. Specialist Care: Access to most specialists requires a referral from your GP. However, for certain specialties like gynecology, ophthalmology, or dentistry, you can make appointments directly without a referral.
  3. Emergency Services: In an emergency, you can go directly to the emergency department of a hospital or dial 112. Ensure you have your health insurance details with you.

Useful Tips for Navigating the Belgian Healthcare System

  • Understand Your Insurance Coverage: Familiarize yourself with what your health insurance covers and what your out-of-pocket expenses might be. Supplementary private insurance can cover additional services not fully covered by the mandatory insurance.
  • Keep Important Documents Handy: Always carry your health insurance card and identification when visiting healthcare providers.
  • Pharmacies and Prescriptions: Medications in Belgium are typically only available from pharmacies and require a prescription from a doctor. Some pharmacies operate on a duty system outside regular hours for emergencies.
  • Language Barrier: While many healthcare professionals in Belgium speak English, it’s helpful to know some basic terms in the local language (French, Dutch, or German) or have a translation app ready.

Further Resources

For more in-depth information and to stay updated on healthcare services in Belgium, consider the following resources:

  • Belgian Federal Public Service (FPS) Health: The official website ( provides comprehensive information on health policies, services, and public health advisories in Belgium.
  • National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI): The RIZIV/INAMI website ( offers detailed information about health insurance, reimbursements, and healthcare providers in Belgium.
  • Your Health Insurance Fund: Each mutuelle/ziekenfonds has its own website with specific information about coverage, services, and additional benefits.


Navigating the healthcare system in Belgium as an expatriate can initially seem complex, but with the right information and preparation, it can be a straightforward process. By understanding how health insurance works, registering with a GP, and familiarizing yourself with accessing medical services, you can ensure that you and your family receive the care you need. Remember, being proactive about your healthcare needs and staying informed are key to making the most of Belgium’s high-quality healthcare system.

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